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→ Food Encyclopedia !
– A –
aerate aerating: Introduce air into (a material), i.e. ‘blend in the cream mixing until smooth without aerating’.
al dente: [al den·te] Italian, Cooked so as to be still firm when bitten… typically pasta.
allemade sauce: A sauce in French cuisine that is based on velouté sauce, but thickened with egg yolks and heavy cream, and seasoned with lemon juice.
– B –
bake: Cook by dry heat without direct exposure to a flame, typically in an oven. The heat surrounds the baking dish on all sides. Unless otherwise specified, always bake the recipe in the center of the oven.
bain Marie: [bahn mah-REE] French, Marie’s bath
A hot water bath used for cooking delicate foods like a custard and sauces or melted chocolates.
baste: To brush or spoon liquid fat or juices over meat during roasting to add flavor and to prevent it from drying out.
batonnet cut: [ba-tawn-NAY] French – various small, stick (baton) shaped foods—such as vegetables or pastries—that may or may not have a filling.
béchamel: [bey-shA-mel] French – A white sauce made by whisking flour into melted butter and then adding milk.
bevel angle cut: [面取り] To thinly trim the edges of vegetables (i.e daikon, carrots) to remove any angles. Rounding off the edges increases the surface area so heat is transferred more efficiently. Sharp edges cook faster than the rest of the vegetable and can break apart. Also called chamfering.
beurre manié: (French “kneaded butter”) is a dough, consisting of equal parts of soft butter and flour, used to thicken soups and sauces. By kneading the flour and butter together, the flour particles are coated in butter.
bias-slice: To slice a food crosswise at a 45-degree angle.
bind: To thicken a sauce or hot liquid by stirring in ingredients such as eggs, flour, butter, or cream.
blacken: A popular Cajun-style cooking method in which seasoned foods are cooked over high heat in in a super heated heavy skillet until charred.
blanch: – Immersing a food in boiling water for about 2 minutes, then cooling it quickly in a bowl of cold water. This technique is used to peel some fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes and peaches. It also is perfect for removing the raw flavor of an ingredient yet leaving the crunch, for example, with snow peas or carrots. The cold heat would further cook the ingredients. – To boil briefly to loosen the skin of a fruit or a vegetable. This is an important step in preparing fruits and vegetables for freezing. After 30 seconds in boiling water, the fruit or vegetable should be plunged into ice water to stop the cooking action, and then the skin easily slices off.
bleat: To smooth a mixture by briskly whipping or stirring it with a spoon, fork, wire whisk, rotary beater, or electric mixer.
blend: To combine two or more ingredients until smooth and uniform in texture, flavor, and color; may be done by hand or with an electric blender or mixer.
bloom: Process of softening gelatin in a cool liquid before it is dissolved. Blooming gelatin is a step integral to ensuring the smooth texture of a finished product. It involves sprinkling the powdered gelatin into a liquid and letting it sit for 3 to 5 minutes. Then, when the mixture is heated, the gelatin will dissolve evenly.
boil:To cook food in heated water or other liquid that is bubbling vigorously.
bouquet garni: [boo-KAY gahr-NEE] French – A bunch of herbs tied or wrapped in cheese cloth and used to flavor soups, stews and broths.
braise: A cooking technique that requires browning meat in oil or other fat and then cooking slowly in liquid. The effect of braising is to tenderize the meat.
bread: To coat the food with crumbs (usually with soft or dry bread crumbs), sometimes seasoned.
broil: To cook food directly under the heat source (such as oven element).
broth or Stock: To cook food in a skillet, broiler, or oven in order to develop a rich, desirable color on the outside, add flavor and aroma, and help seal in natural juices.
brown: A quick sautéing, pan/oven broiling, or grilling method done either at the beginning or end of meal preparation, often to enhance flavor, texture, or eye appeal.
brunoise cut : [broo-NWAHZ] French – vegetables that have been finely diced or shredded, then cooked slowly in butter. The brunoise is then used to flavor soups and sauces.
butterfly: To split food such as shrimp, steak, or pork chop through the middle without completely separating the halves, then spreading the halves to resemble a butterfly. The food cooks more quickly because twice as much surface area is exposed to heat.
– C –
cartouche: A round piece of parchment or grease-proof paper that covers the surface of a stew, soup, stock or sauce to reduce evaporation, to prevent a skin from forming and/or to keep components submerged.
chalazae: [cuh-LAY-zee] The white things that hang off an egg yolk; are twisted in opposite directions and serve to keep the yolk centered. The more prominent the chalazae, the fresher the egg.
chamfering: To thinly trim the edges of vegetables (i.e daikon, carrots) to remove any angles. Rounding off the edges increases the surface area so heat is transferred more efficiently. Sharp edges cook faster than the rest of the vegetable and can break apart. Also called bevel angle cut.
chiffonade: [shif-uh-NAHD] French – Thin strips or shreds of vegetables or herbs either sautéed or used raw as a garnish.
chop: To cut into irregular pieces.
coat: To evenly cover food with flour, crumbs, or a batter.
cold or hot food: People are considered to have hot and cold natures, as does each type of food.
combine: To blend two or more ingredients.
confectioner’s sugar: Powdered sugar, icing sugar… a regional preference what finely pulverized sugar is called.
confit: [känˈfē] Comes from the French word confire which means literally “to preserve”; a confit being any type of food that is cooked slowly over a long period of time as a method of preservation, or meat cooked slowly in its own liquid and fat.
coulis: [ku’li] A form of thick sauce made from puréed and strained vegetables or fruits. A vegetable coulis is commonly used on meat and vegetable dishes, and it can also be used as a base for soups or other sauces.
cream: To beat vegetable shortening, butter, or margarine, with or without sugar, until light and fluffy. This process traps in air bubbles, later used to create height in cookies and cakes.
crème chiboust: French – A crème pâtissière/pastry cream lightened with stiffly beaten egg whites. Though occasionally using whipped cream to lighten this is traditionally a millefeuille cream. Crème Chiboust can be flavored with vanilla, orange zest, or liqueurs. Mixed with fruit, it becomes crème plombières.
It was supposedly created and developed by the pastry Chef M. Chiboust of the pastry shop that was located on the Paris street Rue Saint-Honoré.
If gelatin is bloomed and incorporated to the Chiboust or Plombieres, it can be used as a Bavarian. The Chiboust or the Plombieres can also double as Souffle filling, as long as egg whites are the base; the mix will ‘puff up’ and provide a creamy Souffle.
crudités: [kroo-dee-TAY] French – Raw or blanched seasonal vegetables often served as an appetizer frequently accompanied by a dipping sauce.
crush: To condense a food to its smallest particles, usually using a mortar and pestle or a rolling pin.
cut-in: To Work Vegetable shortening, margarine, or butter into dry ingredients.
– D –
dash: A measure equal to 1/8-teaspoon.
dashi: Japanese – A Japanese clear soup stock, usually made with a fish (i.e. dried shaved bonito, dried baby sardines) or vegetable (i.e. kelp, mushrooms) base, to create umami.
dau·phi·nois: [dôfinˈwä] French – Of potatoes or other vegetables, sliced and cooked in milk/cream, typically with a topping of cheese.
de·coc·tion: The action or process of extracting the essence of something.
deep fry: To completely submerge the food in hot oil.
deglaze: To add liquid to a pan in which foods have been fried or roasted, in order to dissolve the caramelized juices stuck to the bottom of the pan.
degorging: – The bitterness in eggplant is caused by toxins that build up if the eggplant has grown slowly (hence, it’s more of a problem in colder countries, less of a problem in sunny, Mediterranean climates). It is less likely to be a problem with smaller, heavier eggplants.
– These toxins can also cause gastric upsets. Salt may be used to reduce bitterness/toxins. Cut eggplants as called for in the recipe. Then either soak in salted water for a couple of hours or sprinkle the dry, just peeled or cut pieces all over with salt. The eggplant will give off a brownish sweat, which before cooking, should be dried by paper towel or rinsed off if too much salt is used.
dice: To cut into cubes.
direct heat: A cooking method that allows heat to meet food directly, such as grilling, broiling, or toasting.
dissolve: To stir a solid food and a liquid food together to form a mixture in which none of the solid remains. Heat may be needed.
double boiler: A saucepan with a detachable upper compartment heated by boiling water in the lower one.
dock: To prick a pie crust with a fork before baking. This lets the steam escape so the pie crust doesn’t puff up in the oven.
drop-lid: Otoshi buta (落し蓋, literally: drop-lid) are Japanese-style drop-lids for use in Japanese cooking. These round lids float on top of the liquid in a pot while simmering foods. They ensure that the heat is evenly distributed and reduce the tendency of liquid to boil with large bubbles. Although there are wooden ones available in the stores, it may be substituted with a sheet of parchment-paper or aluminum foil.
– E –
emulsion: A mixture of liquids, one being a fat or oil and the other being water based so that tiny globules of one are suspended in the other. This may involve the use of stabilizers, such as egg or mustard. Emulsions may be temporary or permanent.
entremet with biscuit joconde: French – Biscuit Joconde is a fancily layered dessert – usually involving cake, mousse, pastry cream – that is assembled in a mold… imprimé is a thin sponge cake with an imprinted design baked in. This wraps around the entremet, creating an elegant and stunning dessert.
– F –
fanning cut : Such as putting a vertical slices in a strawberry, not going all the way to the end to hold it together
fillet: To remove the bones from meat or fish for cooking.
flambé: To ignite a sauce or other liquid so that it flames.
flute: To create a decorative scalloped or undulating edge on a pie-crust or other pastry.
fold: A method of gently mixing ingredients-usually delicate or whipped ingredients that cannot withstand stirring or beating. To fold, use a rubber spatula to cut down through the mixture, move across the bottom of the bowl, and come back up, folding some of the mixture from the bottom over close to the surface.
fond: [FAWN] French – The browned bits of food remaining in the pan after food has been sautéed or roasted.
fry: To cook food in hot cooking oil, usually until a crisp brown crust forms.
– G –
ganache: [GAHN-AHSH] French – A rich icing or filling made of semi-sweet chocolate and heavy cream, heated and stirred together until the chocolate has melted.
garnish: A decorative piece of an edible ingredient such as parsley, lemon wedges, croutons, or chocolate curls placed as a finishing touch to dishes or drinks.
grat·in: [ɡrätn] French – A dish with a light browned crust of breadcrumbs or melted cheese.
glaze: A liquid that gives an item a shiny surface. Examples are fruit jams that have been heated or chocolate thinned with melted vegetable shortening. Also , to cover a food with such a liquid.
– H –
haricot verts: [ah-ree-koh VEHR] French – Slender green beans.
hot or cold food: People are considered to have hot and cold natures, as does each type of food.
– I –
Icho-giri: Japanese – icho-giri takes its name from the leaves of the ginkgo tree (icho). Icho-giri is applied to those ingredients having a cylindrical shape.
immersion blender: A hand-held food-processor.
imprimé: French – A thin sponge cake with an imprinted design baked in. This wraps around the entremet, creating an elegant and stunning dessert, Biscuit Joconde. (see Entremet)
infusion: Extracting flavors by soaking them in liquid heated in a covered pan. The term also refers to the liquid resulting from this process.
– J –
Japanese Cutting Techniques 野菜の切り方: Tutorial and video by → Just One Cook Book
julienne – せんぎり/Sen-giri: To cut into long, thin strips.
– K –
kecap manis: An Indonesian sweet soy sauce with a thick, almost syrupy consistency and unique, distinct, sweet, somewhat treacle-like flavor, due to generous additions of palm sugar.
knead: To work dough with the heels of your hands in a pressing and folding motion until it becomes smooth and elastic.
koku: ← Detailed explanation.
– L –
lardon: [LAHR-don] French – Sautéed bits if slab bacon that are classic flavor builders often used as a garnish for salads, soups and stews… rendered bacon.
liason: [lee-ay-ZON] French – A binding or thickening agent used for soup, sauces, and other mixtures.
lozenge cut : To cut in diamond shape.
– M –
macerate: From the French word macerer, meaning to steep or soak, is to exchange flavors. Maceration usually is applied to fruit; the fruit is soaked in a flavorful liquid, such as wine, liqueur, brandy or sugar syrup.
marinate: A liquid in which food is allowed to stand in order to flavor or tenderize it. Marinate refers to the process. Do not use a metal container. Do not marinate meats, poultry, or fish at room temperature more than 30 minutes.
meringue: [məˈraNG/] French – An item of sweet food made from a mixture of well-beaten egg whites and sugar, baked until crisp and typically used as a topping for desserts, especially pies. Individual meringues are often filled with fruit or whipped cream.
mince: To chop food into tiny, irregular pieces.
mise en place: [MEEZ ahn plahs] French – To have all your ingredients prepared and ready to go before you start cooking.
moisten: Adding enough liquid to dry ingredients to dampen but not soak them.
– N –
navarin: [Na-vah-rahn] French – A traditional hearty French stew.
– O –
osmosis: Used for preserving fruits and meats, though the process is quite different for the two. In the case of fruit, osmosis is used to dehydrate it, whereas in the preservation of meat, osmosis draws salt into it, thus preventing the intrusion of bacteria.
– P –
parallel cutting: In-case of onion, cut the onion in half from top to bottom straight through the root, put the cut side down, cut/remove the root and slice parallel with the grain of the onion, top to bottom (in a crescent moon shape).
pâte feuillettée: [oath fuh-yuh-TAY] A delicate pastry made by rolling dough with butter and folding in layers (traditional French puff-pastry).
pâte sucrée: French for tart-shell dough
pâte brisée: [path bree-ZAY] A French term for “short pastry” a rich flaky dough used for sweet and savory crust for dishes such as pies, tarts and quiches (pie crust in French).
panbroil: To cook a food in a skillet without added fat, removing any fat as it accumulates.
panfry: To cook in a hot pan with small amount of hot oil, butter, or other fat, turning the food over once or twice.
parboil: To partly cook in a boiling liquid.
parchment paper: A heavy, heat-resistant paper used in cooking. Is used for baking, among other uses… is not same as wax paper, which is not meant for heat.
picked over: To examine in order to select the best or remove the unwanted, i.e. cleaning the rice or beans.
pith: White, soft or spongy tissue in plants/fruits.
poach: To cook a food by partially or completely submerging it in a simmering liquid.
pont neuf cut : Basically thick-cut French fries.
poulette sauce: A mushroom and lemon-flavored allemande sauce (which itself is simply a velouté sauce finished with egg yolks).
precook: To partially or completely cook a food before using it in a recipe.
premavera: Italian – Is a mixture of sliced or dices vegetables.
proof: To let yeast dough rise.
pulverize: Reduce to fine particles.
purée: To change a solid food into a liquid or heavy paste, usually by using a blender, food processor, or food mill; also refers to the resulting mixture.
– Q –
quenelle: A small seasoned ball of pounded fish or meat. Also a shape in which ice-cream may be served to add a restaurant touch.
– R –
reconstitute: To take a dried food such as milk back to its original state by adding liquid.
roast: To cook uncovered in the oven.
rondelle cut – わぎり/wa-giri + ななめぎり/naname-giri : The shape is the result of cutting a cylindrical vegetable, such as a carrot, crosswise.
roulade: [ro͞oˈläd] A dish cooked or served in the form of a roll, typically made from a flat piece of meat, fish, or sponge cake, spread with a soft filling and rolled up into a spiral.
roux: [ROO] French – A mixture of flour and fat used to thicken soups and sauces.
– S –
sasagaki cut: Shaving a long root vegetable like sharpening a pencil with a knife.
sauté: From the French sauté, meaning ‘jumped/bounced’, in reference to tossing while cooking, is a method of cooking food, that uses a small amount of oil or fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat.
scald: Cooking a liquid such as milk to just below the point of boiling; also to loosen the skin of fruits or vegetables by dipping them in boiling water.
score: To tenderize meat by making a number of shallow (often diagonal) cuts across its surface. This technique is also useful in marinating, as it allows for better absorption of the marinade.
sear: Sealing in a meat’s juices by cooking it quickly under very high heat.
serpent-belly cut – jabara giri じゃばらぎり/ 蛇腹切り: Fine, half way slant cut (in apposite angles) on both side of cucumber, to be able to bend like serpent.
shred: To cut or tear into long narrow strips, either by hand or by using a grater of food processor.
simmer: Cooking food in a liquid at a low enough temperature that small bubble begin to break the surface.
skim: To remove the top fat layer from stocks, soups, sauces, or other liquids such as cream from milk.
soffritto: [SOH-FREE-toh] Italian – A combination of ingredients cut into very small pieces, slowly cooked and used as a base for soups and stews (ie, onion, carrots, celery).
spatchcocking: Shorthand for ‘dispatch the cock’, prepare the chicken for roasting over a spit… poultry split open (usually by removing the back bone) and grilled flat.
steam: To cook over boiling water in a covered pan, this method keeps foods’ shape, texture, and nutritional value intact better than methods such as boiling.
steep: To soak dry ingredients (tea leaves, ground coffee, herbs, spices, etc.) in liquid until the flavor is infused into the liquid.
stewing: Browning small pieces of meat, poultry, or fish, then simmering them with vegetables or other ingredients in enough liquid to cover them, usually in a closed pot on the stove, in the oven, or with a slow cooker.
stir-fry: The fast frying of small pieces of meat and vegetables over very high heat with continual and rapid stirring.
Swiss roll: A Swiss roll, jelly roll, or cream roll is a type of sponge cake roll filled with whipped cream, jam, or icing.
– T –
tanzaku-giri/cut (rectangles) ・ hyoshigi-giri (sticks) 短冊切り ・ 拍子木切り : The shape of tanzaku-giri resembles that of a thin strip of paper (tanzaku), usually used for writing waka poetry and haiku.
tarte Tatin: [tart tah-TAN] A classic French upside-down caramelized tart, that is said to have been invented at the turn of the 19th century by the Tatin sisters.
tempering: To slowly bring up the temperature of a cold or a room temperature ingredient by adding small amounts of hot or boiling liquid.
tian: [TYAHN] French – A Provencal layered, sliced vegetables creation named for the traditional earthenware cooking baking dish.
toss: To thoroughly combine several ingredients by mixing lightly.
– U –
umami: a savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweet, sour, bitter and salty). A loanword from the Japanese, umami (うま味) can be translated as ‘pleasant savory taste’. This particular writing was chosen by Professor Kikunae Ikeda from umai (うまい) ‘delicious’ and mi (味) ‘taste’. The kanji 旨味 (also read umami) are used for a more general sense of a food as delicious.
– V –
velouté sauce: [veh-loo-TAY] French – A light stock thickened with blond roux, which is the foundation for many sauces.
vinaigrette: A general term referring to any sauce made with vinegar, oil, and seasonings.
vitelline membrane: The clear casing that encloses the egg yolk. When an egg is said to be “mottled”, the yolk surface is covered with many pale spots or blotches. The strength and integrity of the vitelline membrane are very important in preventing egg yolk mottling.
– W –
wafer: In gastronomy, a wafer is a crisp, often sweet, very thin, flat, and dry biscuit, often used to decorate ice cream. Wafers can also be made into cookies with cream flavoring sandwiched between them.
whip: To incorporate air into ingredients such as cream or egg whites by beating until light and fluffy; also refers to the utensil used for this action.
– X.Y –
– Z –
zest: The thin, brightly colored outer part of the rind of citrus fruits. It contains volatile oils, used as a flavoring.